In May 2004, the 15 Member States of the European Union (EU-15) welcomed 10 new Member States in the largest enlargement in the history of European integration. The Schengen area currently consists of 26 European countries, with a total population of more than 400 million people and an area of 4,312,099 km2 – from Estonia, Latvia and Finland on the border with Russia in the east to the Portuguese coast in the west. Now that the Schengen Agreement is part of the Community acquis, it has lost to the EU Member States the status of a treaty which could only be amended in accordance with its terms. Instead, changes are made in accordance with the EU`s legislative procedure under the EU treaties.  Ratification by the former signatory states is not necessary to amend or repeal all or part of the previous Schengen acquis.  Acts setting out the conditions for accession to the Schengen area are now adopted by a majority of the EU`s legislative bodies. The new EU Member States do not sign the Schengen Agreement as such, but are required to implement the Schengen rules within the framework of existing EU legislation, which any new entrant must accept. [Citation required] Workers have also been recruited by bilateral agreements outside Europe, notably to work in dirty, dangerous and blunt jobs – called 3Ds – in the construction, mining and transport sectors. For example, a considerable number of migrant workers emigrated from Turkey to Germany, Algeria to France and the countries of the British Commonwealth to Great Britain. New controls and documents are needed for trade between the UK and the EU, with specific requirements depending on the nature of the goods involved, where they cross the border and who carries them. An agreement with the EU (or with some Member States) could streamline border processes over any agreement, but in all scenarios traders will face much more friction than today. Security declarations include goods contained in a lot and are part of a World Customs Organization framework aimed at reducing the risk of terrorism and trafficking in illicit goods.
Security declarations must be submitted prior to importation or export and are used to inform national authorities of risk-based controls.